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This is a sub-article of the main article above
An article about Extreme Environmentalists
I also have another, different, blog, here at My Other Blog
I also have another, different, blog, here at My Other Blog
In a previous blog article I put the case that the education system deliberately produces Evidence FREE believers. After long study of ex-teacher John Taylor Gatto and others I have come to believe that politicians have twisted the education system such that most educated people (and especially Medical Doctors and Scientists) have been kept deliberately ignorant of Evidence BASED believing (EBM) .
So, I thought I’d explain what I think that Evidence BASED Believing is.
I ought to start by saying that because Evidence BASED Believing is literally un-orthodox you won’t be able to find one particular book that specifies simply and plainly what it is. I personally think that the nearest single book would be “The Logic Of Scientific Discovery” by Karl Popper which I discovered while doing decades of (amateur) research on the topic of “The Scientific Method.” I also dutifully read my Feyerabend, Kuhn and Lakatos. Also my Kant, Hume and J S Mill.
I think that science is an imperfect and un-easy mixture of two contradictory Epistemologies:- Rationalism and Empiricism.
says that only the mind can perceive truth whereas the senses (touch, taste etc) are misleading
says that only the senses can perceive truth whereas the mind (thoughts, reasonings etc) are misleading
I claim that Science is Rationalism moderated by Empiricism.
In matters of Science there is no clear distinction between Rationalism and Empiricism – they are more likes the two ends of a spectrum with no exact line separating them in the middle. It turns out that it is very hard for humans to dis-entangle the mind from the senses. It also turns out to be impossible to give a rational account of pure sensation.
There is a special kind of event in Science called an “Experiment.”
In a scientific experiment the Rationalism occurs first (in terms of time-sequence) because it requires a fair bit of thought to design a good experiment. However, once the experiment has started it is the Empirical part – (the Seeing, Hearing, Touching, Tasting, or Smelling) that is the most important part. In science the Empirical outranks the Rational. The thought may occur first – timewise – but the Sensation is considered to be stronger evidence than the thought.
An experiment IS:-
★ a comparison between:-
★ what the theory says should be being sensed (Empirically) and
★ what is actually sensed.
In a proper scientific experiment no matter how much you believed you would see something, if you didn’t actually see it then that negative experience should outweigh your rational belief that you should have. The most evidentially significant part of an experiment is where the experimenter notices a difference between what the theory says they should be seeing and what they are actually seeing.
In short, Science is:-
★ Rational beliefs that have been tested Empirically
★ Experiments that have to be designed Rationally, but whose most evidentially significant component is the Empirical observations.
The clearest example of Empiricism “outranking” Rationalism (Experiment “outranking” Theory) is “The Black Swan” example from Karl Popper.
Most people think that swans are white, and would treat the assertion “All Swans are White” as having been “verified” by hundreds of thousands of observations od white swans
Most europeans accepted that assertion as “verified” until some BLACK swans were observed (ie Empirically “seen”) in New Zealand and Australia.
The upshot of The “Black Swan” example is that it forces the realisation that you can never verify a generalisation by empirical observation. No matter how many white swans you observe it is not practically possible to empirically prove the generalisation “All Swans are White.”
However, you can disprove it by empirical observation. You only have to observe one black swan to dis-prove the generalisation.
Numerically speaking, you only have to observe one black swan once to outweigh millions of observations of white swans. Yet today most scientists would take “All the swans that we have seen so far have been white” as proof of the generalisation that “ALL Swans are White.”
(To most scientists the fact that “Some As is B” is the proof that “All As are B”)
However, to Empirically prove that all swans are white would require the empirical observation of every swan that ever was, is or ever will be. And that is practically impossible. Empirical proofs take forever and are staggeringly expensive.
Consider the view of the Maori naturalist in New Zealand who empirically observed only black swans.
How many swans would (s)he have to have seen before (s)he had empirically proved that “All Swans are Black?” The answer is:- (S)he would have to have seen all the swans that ever were, are or will be.
So, my version of Karl Popper’s assertion is:-
You can’t empirically prove a generalisation although you can empirically DISPROVE one.
Experiments don’t prove a theory – They fail to disprove it.
The most important “Black Swan” observation in science occurred on May 29, 1919 when Eddington conducted an empirical observation of a solar eclipse to compare Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity against two other fundamental theories of Western science and mathematics:-
1. Newton’s Law of Gravity and
2. The Geometry of Euclid.
That ONE empirical observation disproved TWO fundamental theories of Physics and Mathematics.
The light passing the sun was bent because the space through which the light was passing had been bent by the sun. Space had been empirically observed to be bent and therefore not Euclidian.
Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity held that gravity was not a force that “forced” objects into circular orbits. Gravity was not a kind of invisible elastic band that applied a pulling force to the Earth and Moon causing a circular orbit. Relativity held that objects were orbiting one another because they were bending the space through which they were moving. Orbits were circular because space was being bent not because there were forces being caused by masses which is what Newton’s theory claimed.
Prior to Einstein the two most “verified” and “proved” and indeed revered claims in Maths and Physics were from Euclidian and Newton.
For mathematicians the Geometry of Euclid was the most perfect piece of reasoning that humans had ever produced. For thousands of years it was the gold standard of “Rationality.” For mathematicians its combination of axioms, postulates and methods completely PROVED its theorems.
For scientists, Newton’s theory of Gravity had been successfully used to predict the location of previously unknown planets such as Neptune and Uranus. Since the observations matched the theory, this theory was also held to be “proven science.”
But, Eddington’s observation disproved both of those theories.
ONE empirical observation disproved TWO fundamental theories of Physics and Mathematics at the same time.
The many millions of empirical observations that had been held to “prove” or “verify” Euclid and Newton – didn’t.
I think that the following comic poem expresses it well:-
“Nature and nature’s laws lay hid in night
God said “Let Newton Be” and all was light.
“It did not last; the devil howling “Ho!”
“Let Einstein Be” restored the status quo.”
And that is where evidence based believing stands today.
All over the world, politicians make sure that they control the education system. That is why – from every country from Poland to Peru – there is a Minister of Education. Politicians want control so that it is they who decide what is taught in schools and universities, rather than academics or intellectuals.
Intellectually the worst effect that politicians have upon the education system is that they force it to produce “Evidence FREE Believers” instead of “Evidence BASED Believers”
A good example of this can be found in Medicine.
There is a whole new movement in modern medicine called “Evidence BASED Medicine” or EBM. EBM says that doctors should base their beliefs on evidence, where “evidence” is primarily Empirical and the best evidence is:-
This EBM movement begins in England in the 1970’s with an epidemiologist called Archibald Cochrane, after whom the Cochrane Foundation was named.
At the moment only a tiny minority of doctors actually practice EBM. The great majority of doctors practice only “Evidence FREE medicine.” in which they don’t know – or care – what the evidence is relating to their beliefs.
Even if they were given that evidence – they wouldn’t know what to do with it because the education system has deliberately kept them ignorant of how to base a belief on evidence.
What the education system has done instead is to psychologically condition them to blindly repeat what they blindly memorised, where – by “blind” I mean “without seeing the evidence.” Not only don’t they know or care what the evidence is, they don’t even know what that means about their beliefs.
I claim that they were deliberately trained to be Evidence FREE Believers because that made it easier to psychologically condition them to be “AUTHORITY Based Believers.” Authority-based believers believe things entirely because an authority figure tells them to.
For Authority-based believers statements are true either:-
What makes a statement true is the authority of the speaker not the relevant evidence. In fact, evidence is irrelevant.
The way to prove a statement is to quote an authority figure. The way to disprove a statement is to quote someone of a higher authority.
Just by co-incidence – the highest authorities just happen to be politicians.
School is where you are psychologically conditioned into being Evidence FREE Believers instead of Evidence BASED Believers. Universities are where you indoctrinated with orthodox dogma. You are trained to believe the official narrative.
I contend that politicians have corrupted the education system and shaped it into something that serves them. The authorities benefit greatly from a system in which assertions are true BECAUSE authorities say they are. They want a system in which 2 + 2 equals whatever they say it does BECAUSE they say it does.
The education system tests students on how well they can blindly repeat what they blindly memorise. It deliberately does NOT test them on
Most university graduates have zero evidence for their beliefs and don’t know that instead of being educated they have been indoctrinated.
This is because it is politicians who specify what is and isn’t in the “National Curriculum” and it is they who make sure that there is no mention of Evidence Based Believing. The most important thing about the National Curriculum is what ISN’T in it.
Politicians have forced the education system to manifest an orthodoxy that deliberatly doesn’t mention Evidence BASED Believing.
The education system has deliberately duped most people into thinking that:-
And has thus programmed them into servitude and ignorance.
It isn’t a “public education system.” It is a politically twisted institution intended to brainwash a population of mindless, robotic subjects who simply think and do whatever the authorities tell them to think and do.
A definition of “ECOFASCIST”
Some readers may think that the term “fascist” is too strong a word for the Climate Con Men (and women). But the reader should familiarise themselves with the phrases:- “hard green” “deep ecology” and “Eco-terrorism”
One definition of Hard green says:-
“Hard green” refers to a branch of the environmentalism movement that considers humans solely as a polluting influence on the environment, and feels that whatever
action is needed to repair human-generated damage to the environment should be undertaken no matter what its effect on humanity.
The biggest Hard Green, Eco-Terrorist, Climate Liars in the UK are the Government, who made the following ecofascist movie.
From my earlier blog-article you will know that this extremely fascist move was made by a public relations firm at the request of a UK GOVERNMENT department.
It is also the UK government that just admitted torturing thousands of Kenyans
And also other war crimes –
Recent British War Crimes
SOME ECOFASCISTS ARE ALSO WAR CRIMINALS
And of course genocide in Canada and Australia. – Canada and Australia Admit Genocide
The UK government are not just ordinary fascists – they are Ecofascists as well.
see also :-
He also said that humans were “a plague on the Earth” and that in the next 50 years, the population bomb will “come home to roost.”
He said we had to “limit population growth or nature will do it for us”, and “we are using up the world’s resources and preventing other species from thriving”
What follows is a list of references to academic papers about the sea level being HIGHER a few thousand years ago.
It has been extracted from this earlier blog article of mine in order to make that article shorter.
“Analysis of the RSL [relative sea level] database revealed that the RSL [relative sea level] rose to reach the present level at or before c. 7000 cal yr BP, with the peak of the sea-level highstand c. +4 m [above present] between c. 6000 and 5500 cal yr BP (depending on the statistical method used) or at c. 7000 cal yr BP according to the ICE-6G model prediction, gradually falling after this time to the present position … Particularly for the Río de la Plata (RDP), a Holocene RSL curve was presented by Cavallotto et al. (2004) based on 14 uncalibrated 14C ages from selected samples from the southwestern coast of the RDP (Argentina). This RSL curve was re-plotted by Gyllencreutz et al. (2010) using the same index points and qualitative approach but using the calibrated ages. It shows rising sea-levels following the Last Glacial Termination (LGT), reaching a RSL [relative sea level] maximum of +6.5 m above present at c. 6500 cal yr BP, followed by a stepped regressive trend towards the present (Fig. 2a).”
“Results: The data shows a period of RSL [relative sea level] highstand at c. 2.2 m above present MSL [mean sea level] between c. 5.0 and 4.0 ka BP [5,000 to 4,000 years before present] .After that, RSL drops by c. 1.3 m between c. 4.0 and 3.4 ka BP to an elevation roughly 1 m above present MSL. Since then, RSL has been falling at more or less even rates.”
The configuration suggests surface inundation of the upper sediments by marine water during the mid-Holocene (c. 2–8 kyr BP), when “sea level was 1–2 m above today’s level.”
“The Holocene-high-stand (HHS) inferred from oyster fossils (Saccostrea echinata and Saccostrea malaboensis) is 2.7 m [above present sea level] at ca. 3500 years ago, after which sea level gradually fell to present level.”
Beach ridge evolution over a millennial time scale is also indicated by the landward rise of the sequence possibly corresponding to the mid-Holocene sea-level highstand of WA [Western Australia] of at least 1-2 m above present mean sea level .”
“Caspian Sea (CS) water level has fluctuated repeatedly with an amplitude of larger than 25m during the Holocene without any link with the eustatic sea level. …. The data from the Langarud sequence indicate that the CSL [Caspian Sea level] rose to at least -21.44m during that time (i.e. >; 6m higher than at present), as Langarud was probably not on the shore itself but was affected by distal brackish water flooding.
This result is in line with historical findings about the CSL high-stand during the 14th and the early 15th centuries
Highlights “We reconstruct Holocene paleoenvironmental changes and sea levels by diatom analysis. Average rates of sea-level rise and fall are estimated during the Holocene. Relative sea level during Holocene highstand reached 1.9 m [higher than today] during 6400–6500 cal yr BP [calendar years before present].”
“RSL [relative sea level] stabilised ~0.2 m above present levels by 900 yr BP. While the mechanism of the RSL instability is still uncertain, the alignment with previously reported RSL oscillations, rapid global climate changes and mid-Holocene reef “turn-off” on the GBR are discussed.”
“In North Island locations the early-Holocene sea-level highstand was quite pronounced, with RSL [relative sea level] up to 2.75 m higher than present. In the South Island the onset of highstand conditions was later, with the first attainment of PMSL being between 7000–6400 cal yr BP. In the mid-Holocene the northern North Island experienced the largest sea-level highstand, with RSL up to 3.00 m higher than present”
“Complete in-situ fossil coral heads have been found on beach rock of One Tree Island, a small cay in the Capricorn Group on the Great
Barrier Reef. Measurements against the present low-tide mark provide a [Holocene] high stand of at least +2.85 m [above present sea levels] … Although the late Holocene high stand has been debated in the past (e.g. Belperio 1979, Thom et al. 1968), more evidence now supports a sea level high stand of at least + 1- 2 m relative to present sea levels (Baker & Haworth 1997, 2000, Collins et al. 2006, Larcombe et al. 1995, Lewis et al. 2008, Sloss et al. 2007).”
“Radiometrically calibrated ages from emergent fossil microatolls on Pulau Panambungan indicate a relative sea-level highstand not exceeding 0.5 m above present at ca. 5600 cal. yr BP“
“Compared to the present, mostly drier conditions and a greater marine influence due to a higher sea level are inferred for the period between 4210 and 2710 cal BP [calendar years before present].”
“The foredunes overlie upper beach deposits located up to >2m above the present upper beach level and provide evidence for a higher mid-Holocene RSL [relative sea level].”
“[D]ata show a Holocene sea-level highstand of 1–2 m higher than present which extended from ca. 7500 to 2000 yr ago (Woodroffe, 2003; Sloss et al., 2007; Lewis et al., 2013). The hydro-isostatic adjustment is thought to account for these 1–2 m sea-level changes to present levels over the past 2000 yr (Lambeck and Nakada, 1990; Lambeck, 2002).”
Mid-Holocene transgression of the Gulf surpassed today’s sea level by 7100–6890 cal yr BP, attaining a highstand of >1 m above current sea level shortly after 5290–4570 cal yr BP before falling back to current levels by 1440–1170 cal yr BP
“In southern Brazil, falling RSL [relative sea level] following a 2–4 m [above present sea level] highstand at 5 to 6 ka [5,000 to 6,000 years ago] forced coastal progradation.”
This article is about NATURAL Climate Change which is the type of Climate Change that the Guardian, the BBC and most politicians deny exists yet also say that they can somehow stop.
They say that they can “Stop Climate Change” but I say that they are LYING
In only 20 times the length of time since the Battle of Hastings
In only 100 times the length of time since the Battle of Hastings,
Many people here in Brighton seem convinced that man-made carbon dioxide is going to cause the sea-level to rise and drown the city. They believe that Man-Made “Carbon” (as they now call it) will drown us all.
But in particular they believe that only if humans stop producing carbon-dioxide will we avoid this deluge.
They seem to think that the sea level has always been the same and will only change because of MAN-MADE carbon (dioxide), and that mankind has to stop producing this “carbon” in order to stop the sea-level from rising.
So, although I am not a geologist, I did a little academic research into the local geology to see if they were right
If you had lived in Brighton for the last 500,000 years you would have seen the English Channel empty of seawater and then fill-up again FIVE times.
Whenever the English Channel emptied, Brighton would have been at the top a cliff and you would have been able to look down at the dry floor of the English Channel.
Whenever the English Channel filled up again, Brighton would have been a sea-side town
The graph was taken from a documentary called “Megaflood-how Britain became an island” which is narrated by Dr Jenny Collier of the Department of Earth Science and Engineering in Imperial College London.(The graph itself gives an academic reference to “Rabineau et al.,2006” which is probably :- “Paleo sea levels reconsidered from direct observation of paleoshoreline position during Glacial Maxima (for the last 500,000 yr)”)
This same graph is also used in a documentary called “Walking Through Time” shown on Channel 4
Both documentaries are worth watching – AFTER you have finished reading this article.
Starting on the right of the Sea Level Graph at 500,000 years ago – and moving right to left – you will see that:-
The troughs of the Sea Level Graph are labelled “Glacial“ and the peaks of the graph are labelled “Inter-Glacial.”
In other words – in Glacial periods the sea level is at its lowest and in Inter-Glacial periods the sea level is at its highest.
The documentaries explain these Glacial/Inter-Glacial phenomena by stating that during “glaciation” periods it is very cold. So cold that a lot of water is frozen into ice and locked into ice sheets such as the Polar Ice Cap. Since the water is in the ice sheets as ice, it isn’t in the sea as liquid water – so the sea level is low during Glacial periods.
Later, during the Inter-Glacials the climate is warm enough to melt the ice and turn it into water that flows into the sea, causing the sea level to rise. So the sea level is high during Inter-Glacial periods.
Put simply, water keeps freezing into ice (it’s solid form) causing the sea-level to go down, and then melting back into its liquid form causing the sea-level to go up.
We’ve had five Glacials in the last 500,000 years and 4 Inter-Glacials and are currently in an Inter-Glacial which the geologists call:- “The Holocene Inter-Glacial”
Note:- (Technical Jargon) Geologists divide The “Quaternary” Period which was mentioned in the Sea Level Graph into two “epochs”:
You can use the picture above to help visualize what 150m is. The picture shows the seafront of Brighton and its new building called the “i360” which is 162m tall. That’s pretty close to 150m.
The purple square at ground level highlights a motor car, just to give a sense of scale.
According to the Sea Level Graph Brighton is regularly as far above the sea-level as the top of the i360 is above the car.
The Sea Level Graph shows that the sea level goes down and then up again by (about) the height of the i360, roughly every hundred thousand years. It takes a lot longer to down than to come up, but when it does come up then it peaks at about 20 meters higher than it is now.
The sea level today is shown on the Sea Level Graph as a black horizontal line labelled “today’s mean sea level.”
The Graph shows that every hundred thousand years or so, Brighton is 20 meters below the sea level. That’s about one eighth the height of the i360.
Nature drowns Brighton in seawater every hundred thousand years – NATURALLY
Here’s another picture of the i360, with a human being circled in yellow to show the scale.
Try and imagine the sea to have risen up one eighth the height of the i360, because that’s 20 meters – the height that Nature drowns Brighton in every hundred thousand years – NATURALLY.
The last time that this happened was about 100,000 years ago during the last Inter-Glacial (often called The Eemian.) Then the sea level spent 80,000 years falling about the height of the i360 before spending another 20,000 years rising back again to where it is now. NATURALLY
This map of the depth of the English Channel today shows that the sea never gets deeper than 80 meters between Brighton and France. The map is from the University Of SussexBeside it is the following text:-
During Quaternary times there were a series of global climatic variations (oscillations) which comprised glacial periods characterized by the growth of polar ice caps, and interglacial periods characterized by the decay of polar ice caps.
During glacial periods sea level fell to levels as low as –120 m below present day sea level as the polar ice caps and continental glaciers locked in enormous quantities of seawater
During interglacial periods sea level generally rose to present day levels. There may have been as many as 20 glacial–interglacial cycles during the 2 million or so years of the Quaternary when sea level rose and fell.
This means that there may have been as many as 20 cycles of cold-then-warm in the last 2 million years, including the 5 upon which we focus here.
A catastrophic megaflood separated Britain from France hundreds of thousands of years ago, changing the course of British history, according to research recently published in the journal Nature (Nature 448, 342-345 (19 July 2007).
The study was led by Sanjeev Gupta and Jenny Collier from the Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London and is called “Catastrophic flooding origin of shelf valley systems in the English Channel“.
This picture is taken from their article in the journal “Nature.”. Basically, there is a big lake shown in blue which is full of freshwater (not seawater) which suddenly breaks through the “Weald–Artois Anticline” gouging out the “Straights Of Dover”
The floodwater rushes down the channel towards the sea, which is so far to the left of the map that it is not even shown on it.
The map pictured here has several features worth noticing as itemised below
Most of the map is covered in ice – shown here in black for emphasis. This ice stretches all the way to the North Pole. There is so much ice that the Polar Ice Cap extends all the way to London
” At the time, glaciers pushed down from the north pole to the tip of north London and England’s southern coast was reachable from France by a broad land bridge.”
from :- “English channel carved by huge ancient flood” The Guardian, Ian Sample, science correspondent Wednesday 18 July 2007
There is no sea water in the English Channel as shown on the map – the English Channel is emphasized here in red. There is no sea water in the English Channel because there is so much water locked up in the ice that the sea level has dropped below the bottom of the Channel.
The English channel is dry land – high and dry above the sea.
It does however have freshwater rivers running through it. According to the map, The Seine, the Somme and the Solent all flow through it on their way to the sea. The sea is off the left edge of the map.Gupta says in the Guardian
“Ten thousand years ago, at the end of the last ice age, with much of the world’s water still trapped in giant glaciers and ice caps, sea levels were many feet below their current level. The river Arun, which now enters the Channel at Littlehampton, then ran on for several miles before flowing into a valley that had been carved by a south-flowing river created by the combined waters of the Thames, Rhine and Seine.”
The illustration above is from a BBC article about the megaflood called “Megaflood made Island Britain“- it also shows rivers (like the Solent and the Seine) flowing down the channel and the channel itself to be mostly dry land. It goes on to say:-
“It is believed that hundreds of thousands of years ago, when ice sheets had pushed down from Scotland and Scandinavia, there existed a narrow isthmus linking Britain to continental Europe. This gently up-folding chalk ridge was perhaps some 30m higher than the current sea level in the English Channel.
Palaeo-researchers think it bounded a large lake to the northeast that was filled by glacial meltwaters fed by ancient versions of the rivers Thames and Rhine. Then – and they are not sure of the precise date – something happened to break the isthmus known as the Weald-Artois ridge.”
Here’s more evidence of the English Channel not having any seawater in it about 18,000 years ago.
(Everything not blue on the map was ABOVE sea level 18,000 years ago.)
It is from the National Geographic
Notice the rivers running along the English channel, and the ancient shoreline being hundreds of miles from the current shoreline.
About 450,000 years ago (as emphasized by the vertical black bar in the graph) the sea level has dropped about 120 meters because there is so much water locked up in the ice sheets.
The graph shows that the sea level then rose, and it seems reasonable to infer that the sea level rose because the climate got warmer and melted the ice. (see “Superimposed Graphs” below)
The graph shows that the huge drop in sea-level happened four more times until about 20,000 years ago, which was the last Glacial (mini ice-age) period. The sea level was 150 meters lower then than it is now and the bottom of the English Channel was above sea level.
At this time The Polar Ice Cap – the “North Pole” – stretched down to London. ( as shown in “FEATURE 1 – THE HUGE ICESHEET” above)
Notice that the peaks of the Sea Level Graph (labelled “Inter-Glacials“) show a sea-level HIGHER than the average sea-level is today. Brighton today is a sea-side town because it is exactly on the horizontal line labelled “today’s mean sea level line” on the Sea Level Graph.
This means that when the sea level is higher than that “today’s mean sea level line” it is higher than Brighton is today. So, according to the Sea Level Graph, Brighton would have been drowned (and then un-drowned) by sea-water four times since the Straights of Dover were formed.
During Inter-Glacials Brighton would have been drowned by as many as 20 meters of sea water. The last time that this happened was about 100,000 years ago, when Brighton was 20 meters below sea level.
Then the sea level fell for 80,000 years to the point where the bottom of the English channel was dry land (again) and Brighton was on the edge of a cliff over-looking a dry Channel floor (again.)
Then, about 20,000 years ago, the sea level started to rise (again.)
At the moment it is about 20 meters below the highest levels that it reached in the past half-million years. This suggests that perhaps in the future Brighton will be 20m under the sea – (again.)
When the red line is below the thick black line the bottom of the English channel is above sea level. So roughly about 30% of the time the bottom of the English Channel is above sea level.
When the red line is below the thin black line labelled “today’s mean sea level” then Brighton is above sea level. So roughly about 90% of the time Brighton is above sea level.
When the red line is above the thin black line labelled “today’s mean sea level” then Brighton is below sea level. So roughly about 10% of the time Brighton is below sea level.
It is only when the red line crosses the thin black line that Brighton is at sea level. The big yellow arrows point to a pair of such crossing points.
Brighton is only at sea level for much less than 1% of the time. For most of the time Brighton is well above sea level, and when it isn’t above sea level it is mostly below sea level.
Brighton is only at sea level at crossing places like where the big yellow arrows point to.
“Eight times humans came to try to live in Britain and on at least seven occasions they failed – beaten back by freezing conditions Scientists think they can now write a reasonably comprehensive history of the occupation of these isles. It stretches from 700,000 years ago and the first known settlers at Pakefield in Suffolk, through to the most recent incomers just 12,000 years or so ago. The evidence comes from the Ancient Human Occupation of Britain Project. This five-year undertaking by some of the UK’s leading palaeo-experts has reassessed a mass of scientific data.”
“The project has established that a see-sawing climate and the presence of intermittent land access between Britain and what is now continental Europe allowed only stuttering waves of immigration. But the story from then on is largely one of failed colonisation, as retreating and advancing ice sheets at first exposed the land and then covered it up “Britain has suffered some of the most extreme climate changes of any area in the world during the Pleistocene,” said Professor Stringer. “So places in say South Wales would have gone from something that looked like North Africa with hippos, elephants, rhinos and hyenas, to the other extreme: to an extraordinary cold environment like northern Scandinavia.”
“Scientists now think there were seven gaps in the occupation story – times when there was probably no human settlement of any kind on these shores. Britain and the British people of today are essentially new arrivals – products only of the last influx 12,000 years.”
“The evidence suggests there were eight major incursions. All but the last – about 12,000 years ago – were unsuccessful. A number of major palaeo-sites mark the periods of influx. Extreme cold made Britain uninhabitable for thousands of years” from:- “Britain’s human history revealed” BBC News, 5 September 2006 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/5317762.stm
When the temperature goes down, so does the sea level.
The explanation for why as the temperature goes up, the sea level goes up seems obvious. As the temperature goes up the ice melts and turns into water that flows into the sea, raising the sea-level. As the temperature goes down the water freezes and turns into ice which lowers the sea level.
This image from NOAA compares the polar ice cap 18,000 years ago (when there was a glacial/mini ice-age) with the Polar Ice Cap of today (when there is an Inter-Glacial). The images look down from above the North Pole and the red circles point to where the UK was then (left hand side of image) and is now (right hand side of image).
You can see that 18,000 years ago (left hand image) the polar ice cap extended all the way to London, and has shrunk since then to less than 1/4 of that area (right hand side of image).
Note also that in the left hand image (which depicts the UK 18,000 years ago) the entire English Channel is green in colour and therefore above sea level. The English Channel is dry land.
For the last 18,000 years the Polar Ice cap has been melting and shrinking, from a time when it was so big that it reached London to a time when it is so small that it is the other side of Greenland.
At the same time the sea level has been rising because of the melted ice, and Brighton is now a sea-side town on an English Channel full of seawater.
The image … shows schematically how sea levels have risen since the last ice age and that the sea only reached Pevensey about 5,000 year before today.”
The image is from:- Pevensey Coastal Defence Ltd The image should be animated, but may not be animated in your particular browser.
The land that New York stands upon used to extend all the way to the edge of the dark blue part of the map, according to the USGS.
“The Hudson Shelf Valley is thought to have been repeatedly downcut during periods of Pleistocene marine regression This downcutting possibly was amplified by the proposed catastrophic drainage of late Wisconsinan glacial lakes 12,000 – 14,000 yrBP. The shoreline was located approximately at the 60 m isobath at this time.
So, 12,000 years ago that area in light blue was DRY LAND , and the sea has risen that much since then.
The USGS hint that the sea level has risen AND FALLEN (and risen again) with the statement:-
“The repeated emergence and submergence of the continental shelf “
quoted from the USGS
If the sea level at New York has risen 60 metres in 12,000 years. That’s 5 metres every 1000 years or 5mm per year (on “average”).
If the Pilgrim Fathers had landed 20,000 years ago, they would have had to walk 200 miles UPHILL if they wanted to found their colony in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
If they had walked up to New York, they would have seen the edge of the Polar Ice Cap, and noticed that New York was 200 miles inland and hundreds of feet above sea level.
If they had trudged over to Chicago they would have found it buried under half a mile of ice.
If they had snow-shoe’d over to Alaska they would have seen immigrants from Siberia walking across the Bering Straights.
If they had settled in Alaska they would have seen the ice over Chicago melt, and the Bering Straight fill with sea water.
If they stayed in Massachusetts they would have seen the coastline retreat from the black line (on the map) to the red line as the sea-level rose.
If you read the USGS info you’ll see its general similarity to the account given earlier in this article on Brighton :-
You could produce a similar account for every city on the coast of every country from Alaska to New Zealand.
Why don’t YOU do it for YOUR nearest coastal city?
The UN headquarters building is in New York. They should have this account of climate change in the foyer of their building.
I got the image from the Georgia Institute Of Tech . I don’t know where they got it from.
If you are interested then I suggest you gather the evidence to show that the right hand image keeps transforming into the left hand image – and then back again as the sea level rises and falls and rises again.
Every 100,000 years the sea level starts where the left image shows it to be, then spends 80,000 years sinking down to where the right-hand image shows it to be. Then in only 20,000 years it rises back to where the left-hand image shows it to be – with the likelyhood of rising even higher.
Over and over again.
By The Way –
What was happening to the Soloman Islands, the Maldives and Kiribati when the sea level was 120 meter lower? What was the Great Barrier Reef doing? What have they all been doing for the last 20,000 years – apart from drowning? And what were they doing when the sea-level was several metres HIGHER about 7.000 years ago (see below)?
In a recent interview Dr.Ian Clark of the University of Ottawa, earth scientist specializing in hydrogeology and paleoclimate, pointed out that during the Holocene Hypsithermal of some 8,000 years ago, a period of warming when there was no ice at all in the arctic.
Polar bears were highly adaptable and ‘survived just fine’ in a warm, green (ice-free) arctic
The ( “Holocene Hypsithermal” ) mentioned in the video above is the warmest point in the Earth’s climate during the current interglacial stage. It lasted roughly the interval from 9,000 to 5,000 years BP as illustrated on the graph shown below which is based on Greenland Ice Cores.
Ever since the hypsithermal it has been getting colder – not warmer – in a geological time period now being called “Neoglaciation” because it is currently “glaciating” (ie getting COLDER) rather than getting warmer.
Notice the current warming (shown in red) and how much less it is than both the Holocene Hypsithermal and the Roman and Medieval warm periods.
Notice also the 8.2 Kiloyear event in the graph above based on Greenland Ice Cores.
Around about 8.2 thousand years before present there is a sudden dramatic plunge in temperature quickly followed by an increase in temperature that is just as sudden. If you examine the graph you can easily see that the rate of climate change was much greater in the 8.2 Kiloyear event than in the recent climate changes shown in red on the graph – the ones allegedly caused by humans.
To claim that the recent climate changes are much more rapid than those of the 8.2 Kiloyear event is to DENY the natural climate change known as the 8.2 Kiloyear event.
Note also that it was more then 2 degrees hotter in the Minoan warming and the hypsithermal and yet the world did not end.
The Paris Climate agreement has fixated on stopping the world from getting 2 degrees warmer – because the lying ecofascists scream that if it ever did then everyone and everything would DIE!!!
There used to be a lot of academic references here, whose purpose was to establish that the sea level was higher all over the world a few thousand years ago.
However, in order to make this article shorter – I have extracted them and put them here – in a blog article of their own.
Don’t bother to read these academic references the first time through – they are just there to make a point convincingly.
I speculate that – if the polar ice-cap had melted – as shown above – then it seems reasonable that the sea-level would have risen.
We’ve had periods of Global WARMING called “Inter-Glacials” during which the English Channel filled with sea water and the Polar Ice Cap shrunk to be so small that it was the other side of Greenland.
That’s ten climate changes that many Ecofascists deny.
One way of interpreting the “Sea Level Graph” is that it is “cyclic.” It doesn’t show 10 separate Climate Changes juxtaposed at random, it shows 5 pairs of first decreasing and then increasing sea-levels. 5 “Cycles” of climate change
This is relevant because there is another climate cycle that people are familiar with which also involves heating and cooling :- winter and summer. Most people know that it is NOT the amount of Carbon Dioxide in the air that determines whether it is warm in summer or cold in winter – it is the relative position of the earth and sun.
Another explanation for cycles of Hot and Cold that Geologists discuss is the Milankovitch cycle.
The point about the Milankovitch cycles is that it is the relative positions of the earth and sun that have the major effect on the climate – NOT the amount of CO2 in the air.
Here are some good article on CYCLES :-
And here are some recent papers supporting the notion that natural sources of variation can account for most of the recent climate variation:-
But Ecofascists DENY that there are cycles and insist that if it is warming now then that means that it will never get colder again. It will keep getting warmer and warmer ’til the whole planet melts. They argue that just because in the past global warming was always followed by global cooling that is no reason to suspect that it will continue to do so in the future. For them the past is no guide to the future.
The Ecofascists can’t explain WHY the previous cycles occurred – they don’t know what CAUSED the changes of climate, but they do know that whatever it was it stopped when humans started to build coal-fired power stations.
They say that the only way to stop us all from dying and to also stop the whole planet from catching fire and burning to a crisp is:-
We are currently in a period of Global Warming.
I contend that if we try to predict the future based on the past, and project forward using the graphs :-
Then, after that, it will get colder, the Polar Ice Cap will get so big that it covers most of Britain and the sea level will fall below the depth of the English channel. AGAIN.
I contend that after Global Warming we should expect Global Cooling.
Sea level rise of 150 meters takes about 20,000 years, which is an “average” of about 7.5 mm per year. (Ecofascists claim that only the most recent bit of it was caused by humans.)
The Battle of the Somme in 1916 (during WW1) was 100 years ago. At the straight-line average rate of 0.75m per century, the sea level at Brighton would have risen about 0.75m since the Battle of the Somme.
The Battle of Hastings was about 1000 years ago (1066), so this means that (using the “average” slope of the graph, not the actual slope) the English Channel would have been about 7.5 meters lower when the Normans came ashore with their horses.
Julius Caesar and his Roman legions came, saw and conquered about 2000 years ago (55BC), so this means that the English Channel would have been about 15 meters lower when the Romans came ashore at Pevensey with their wine and their public safety. (Using the straight-line “average” slope of the graph, not the actual slope)
20 times longer ago than the Battle of Hastings (10 times longer ago than The Roman Invasion) :-
20,000 years ago the Normans could have ridden their horses across the channel but they would not have wanted to because it was so cold in the UK. If they had ridden on to London then they would have been able to see the edge of the Polar Ice Sheet (“North Pole”) and then have used it to ski all the way to the North Pole – assuming that their horses could ski.
20,000 years ago the Romans could have marched across the channel but they would not have wanted to because it was so cold in the UK. If they had marched on to Londinium then they would have been able to see the edge of the Polar Ice Sheet (“North Pole”) and then have used it to ski all the way to the North Pole – assuming that their legions could ski.
In only 10 times the-length-of-time-since-the-Romans-invaded
100,000 Years Ago – (the last “Inter-Glacial“)– The sea was 20 Meters higher
In only 100 times the length of time since the Battle of Hastings, we’ve gone through ONE cycle of cold and then warm.
In only 500 times the Length of time since the Battle of Hastings, we’ve gone through FIVE cycles of cold and then warm.
The battle of the Somme was 100 years ago, so lets call 100 years a “Somme.”
10 Sommes ago was the Battle of Hastings.
20 Sommes ago the Romans landed at Pevensey
200 Sommes ago was the coldest part of the last ice age.
* The English channel had no seawater in it.
* The Polar Ice Cap reached all the way to London.
1000 Sommes ago
* The sea level was 20 meters higher than it is now
* A period of Global Warming had just ended and a period of Global Cooling had just started. This period of global cooling lasted 800 Sommes and for most of it Brighton was many metres higher than the average sea level.
Then 200 Sommes ago it started to get warmer
In only 200 Sommes, the ice has retreated from London all the way to the other side of Greenland. In only 200 Sommes, the sea has risen the height of the i360.
In the last 5,000 Sommes the Sea level has gone down and up the height of the i360 FIVE times. That’s:- Down, Up, Down, Up, Down, Up, Down, Up, Down, Up. Regular as clockwork. Over and Over again.
It has just spent 200 Sommes rising UP – given its previous history, what do you think it is likely to do next? Is it likely to go UP or DOWN?
If you look at the “The Sea Level Graph” Brighton has been a sea-side town whenever the red “sea level” graph cuts the black horizontal line labelled “today’s mean sea level” According to the graph, the last time that this happened was about 100,000 years ago when the sea level was falling from a height of 20 meters ABOVE the current Brighton.
For a few thousand years or so Brighton had been beneath the sea because global WARMING/Climate Change had melted the ice and made the sea level rise, but now global COOLING/Climate Change was freezing the sea and causing the sea level to drop.
On its way down from 20 meters higher than it is now it briefly exposed Brighton as a sea side town, then the sea-level kept falling as it got colder and Brighton got to be more and more of a cliff-top town overlooking a wide valley that was getting colder.
Eventually the sea level fell so much the the bottom of the valley became a dry plain, with a river running through the middle of it too far away from Brighton to be seen. You could basically walk from Brighton to France except for the river in the middle.
This is an artist’s impression of the BOTTOM of the English Channel 20,000 years ago. Notice that there is no salt-water in it. The sea-bed is dry. Notice also that it is very cold and overcast. It is the cold temperatures that have frozen the world’s water and locked it into the Ice Sheets, reducing the sea-level.
Then it all reverses again about 20 “Battles of Hastings” ago. The weather starts to get warmer (Global Cooling tips over into Global Warming.) The ice melts so much that the sea level rises and fills the English Channel and Brighton again becomes a sea-side town.
So Brighton is a sea side town twice in each 100,000 year cycle
1. Once at the end of a short, sharp period of Global Warming when it’s getting warmer and the sea level is rising.
2. Once again a few thousand years later at the start of a long period of Global Cooling when it is getting colder and the sea level is falling.
Brighton is a sea-side town whenever it is not too hot and whenever it is not too cold. It is currently a sea-side town because the weather has been getting warmer for the last 20,000 years – We’ve had GLOBAL WARMING for the last 20,000 years.
Brighton has been a sea-side town 9 times in the last 500,000 years. 5 times when it was getting warmer and 4 times when it was getting colder. (I know that the Sea Level Graph shows 12 cuts, but I am simplifying things.)
The Ecofascists (the Guardian, BBC and most politicians and bureaucrats) say that the only way for Brighton to avoid being flooded by the sea is to become “sustainable”.
“Sustainable” means being
* De-industrialised – especially not using coal-fired power stations and
* Using only renewable resources such as wood and cotton and
* Not using any non-renewable resources such as plastic or metal.
It also means as handing complete control of every aspect of your life – including your culture and even your happiness to some scheming climate-liar of a politician.
Sustainability is both poverty and slavery.
(Please see my blog articles on “sustainability” :-
A sustainable lifestyle is one that resembles that of a medieval peasant, or better still a stone age caveman
Ecofascists claim that only if we live as stone age cavemen can we avoid CLIMATE CHANGE and the destruction of “the whole planet”.
But the “Temperature and Human Habitation” graph shows that there were already humans living like stone-age cavemen at each of the previous 8 Climate Changes.
YET IT STILL DIDN’T STOP EITHER THE CLIMATE OR THE SEA LEVEL FROM CHANGING.
Which proves that living like cavemen doesn’t stop sea-level rise. And de-industrialising Brighton will not stop the climate from changing and thus make it “sustainable.”
Humans living like low-tech peasants didn’t stop the climate from changing in the past.
It didn’t stop Climate Change the 4 times the temperature and sea were going up or the 4 times the temperature and sea were going down. Humans lived sustainably – that means just like cavemen – and yet the climate still changed.
Sustainable living didn’t stop the Global Warming changing to Global Cooling and it also didn’t stop the Global Cooling changing back to Global Warming.
Humans didn’t use coal fired powered power stations yet the climate still changed. They didn’t drive gas-guzzling cars and yet the climate still changed.
Or maybe Ecofascists are right! Maybe it was cavewomen, driving their cavechildren to caveschool in 4 by 4’s that caused the Climate to Change!!
There were humans living like cavemen here in England during all the climate changes of the last 500,000 years – from Warming to Cooling and yet they didn’t stop those climate changes from happening.
There were humans living like cavemen here in Europe during all the climate changes of the last 500,000 years – from Cooling to Warming and then back again and yet they didn’t stop those climate changes from happening.
Living sustainably in Europe has no more effect on the climate change than living sustainably in England.
The graphs also show that it wasn’t “Capitalism” that caused climate change. I’ve actually seen the slogan “Stop Capitalism Stop Climate Change” here in Brighton. Yet these cavemen didn’t practise capitalism. They weren’t even Christian and yet the climate changed.
Ecofascists deny the Global Warming that began 20,000 years ago. They also deny the melting of the Polar Ice Cap that began at the same time. The reason that they deny that warming and melting is because they cannot blame it on coal fired power stations and gas guzzling cars.
They not only deny Global Warming but they also deny that they are Global Warming deniers. For them denying Global Warming doesn’t make you a Global Warming denier.
Ecofascists also completely deny Global Cooling as a possible future. Global Cooling is a Climate Change that in Brighton they violently deny – and yet they also deny that they are Climate Change deniers.
For EcoFascists – Denying a climate change doesn’t make you a Climate Change Denier.
Ecofacists also claim that they can stop the climate from changing – “Stop Climate Change” they shout.
They claim that whatever the climate is now it can be made to stay that way FOREVER. Which means that basically all the graphs shown in this blog article can be made to flat line into the future.
They claim that not only won’t it get any hotter or colder but the sea level can be forced to remain exactly the same – FOREVER.
Ecofascists are worse than the flattering courtiers of King Canute
“Canutism” is what I call the doctrine that humans can stop the average sea-level from changing. I think man’s ability to stop sea-level rise is about the same as Canute’s ability to stop the tides.
I also think that man’s ability to stop climate change is about the same as man’s ability to stop the seasons or to stop day turning into night.
Examples of Canutism:-
The map shown above tells us that the area highlighted in red was above sea level 7000 years ago, but is not anymore. Historians call that area “Doggerland.”
If we sent modern “Canutists” (The Guardian, The BBC, and the UK Government) back in time to Doggerland, they would bully the inhabitants into believing that all they needed to do to stop the sea-level from rising was to reduce their emissions of “carbon”.
Any inhabitants of Doggerland who were sceptical about camp-fires being the cause of the rising sea-level would have been punished as “Denialists” who were “anti-science.”
Without campfires, everyone would have been forced to shiver in the cold and dark. The sea level would have continued to rise and the humans would have continued to shiver in the cold and dark while they drowned.
If any survivors of Doggerland had travelled to Britain as refugees of climate change, EcoFascists would have blamed the British for causing the rise in sea level and would have forced the British to stop producing “carbon.” The British would hav been forced to extinguish their campfires and shiver in the cold and dark for thousands of years while the sea-levels continued to rise.
When eventually the sea-level did stop rising the EcoFascists would shout that it was proof of their claim that you can stop the sea-level from rising by shivering in the cold and dark.
Proof if proof were necessary for EcoFascists. Because correlation is causation.
Ecofascists insist that the last 20,000 years of Global Warming can be stopped – but they don’t specify when. (“Stop Climate Change”)Ecofascists insist that the last 500,000 year cycle of warming followed by cooling (followed by warming etc) can be stopped – but they don’t specify when. (“Stop Climate Change”)
Ecofascists say they can stop the climate changing FOREVER. No more glacials nor inter-glacials, no more climate change – EVER.
All we have to do to achieve this fixed stability is to “decarbonise” and live “sustainably.”
To live sustainably means :-
“I am not going to rest easy until I have articulated in every possible form the need to bring about major structural changes in economic growth and development. That’s the real issue. Climate change is just a part of it.”